Footnotes by Chapter

13. Responses to Bat-Ye'Or's Eurabia

13. Thus, the response to Bat-Ye’or’s Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis (Madison, N.J.: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 2005) was either to ignore it or to denounce it as conspiracy- and fear-mongering Islamophobia. “What began as an outlandish conspiracy theory has become a dangerous Islamophobic fantasy that has moved ever closer toward mainstream respectability,” Matt Carr, “You Are Now Entering Eurabia,” Race and Class 48, no. 1 (2006): 1–22; “Tales from Eurabia,” The Economist, 22 June 2006. In quick succession a small cottage industry of books and articles, often by major academics, have reiterated Bat Ye’or’s thesis: Tony Blankley, The West’s Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations? (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2005); Robert Spencer, ed., The Myth of Islamic Tolerance (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2005); Oriana Fallaci, The Force of Reason (New York: Rizzoli International, 2006); Bruce Bawer, While Europe Slept: How Radical Islam is Destroying the West from Within (New York: Doubleday, 2006); Melanie Phillips, Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2006); Mark Steyn, America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2006); Lee Harris, The Suicide of Reason: Radical Islam’s Threat to the West (New York: Basic Books, 2007); Walter Laqueur, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2007); Bruce Thornton, Decline and Fall: Europe’s Slow Motion Suicide (New York: Encounter Books, 2008); Christopher Caldwell, Reflections on the Revolution In Europe: Immigration, Islam, and the West (London: Allen Lane, 2009).

15. Prohibiting "Othering" and Free Speech

15. On the prohibition of “othering” the “Orient,” the most powerful voice was that of Edward Saïd, Orientalism (New York: Vintage, [1978] 1994); Saïd attacked Huntington’s thesis in the immediate aftermath of 9-11: “The Clash of Ignorance,” The Nation, 22 October 2001. On the critique of Saïd’s seminal work, see Martin Kramer, Ivory Towers in the Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America (Washington D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001) and Ibn Warraq, Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Saïd’s Orientalism (New York: Prometheus Books, 2007). For a review of legal efforts to silence hate speech directed at Muslims, see Brooke Goldstein and Aaron Eitan Meyer, “‘Legal Jihad’: How Islamist Lawfare Tactics Are Targeting Free Speech,” ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law 15:2 (2009): 395-410; for an opposite point of view (that legal actions are impinging on freedom of speech for Muslims and Western radicals, see Shawn Marie Boyne, “Free Speech, Terrorism, and European Security: Defining and Defending the Political Community,” Pace Law Review 30 (2010): 417-83; and Boyne, “The Criminalization of Speech in an Age of Terror: Casting a Wide Net for Evildoers, in Rights, Citizenship And Torture: Perspectives On Evil, Law And The State, ed. John Parry & Welat Zeydanlioglu (Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2009), chap. 10.

20. Baudrillard, 9-11, and Schadenfreude

20. “That we have dreamed of this event, that everybody without exception has dreamt of it, because everybody must dream of the destruction of any power hegemonic to that degree,—this is unacceptable for Western moral conscience, but it is still a fact, and one which is justly measured by the pathetic violence of all those discourses which attempt to erase it.In the end, they did it, but we wanted it.” Jean Baudrillard, “The Spirit of Terrorism,” Le Monde, 2 November 2001; English translation (my translation and italics). Boyne cites a predecessor to this display of triumphalist Schadenfreude, Denis Leroy, who, two days after 9-11, published a cartoon in a Basque weekly, Ekaitza, that portrayed the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center with the caption, “We have all dreamt of it . . . Hamas [sic] did it.” Leroy was found guilty of “complicity in defense or apology of terrorism” in 2002, upheld on appeals most recently in 2008. No one has pressed charges against Baudrillard for his piece. On the anti-Americanism of Europe, see, among many important studies, Andrei Markovits, Uncouth Nation: Why Europe Dislikes America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007). On Baudrillard’s essay, see my own response: “Baudrillard on 9-11: American Derangement Syndrome and the Ideology of Resentment,” Augean Stables, May 30, 2006.